The Battery was raised as No6 Company, Bengal Artillery in 1778 where it first saw action in the siege of Mysore. Like many other batteries, 137 (Java) Battery has undergone numerous role and title changes and has fought in a great many campaigns during its long history. The honour title is taken as a result of the action in 1811, during the capture of Java. At the time the British were suffering trade losses as a result of French and Dutch hostilities being mounted from occupied islands in the Indian Ocean.
In 1810 a number of islands were taken by the Royal Navy and forces of the East India Company, and in 1811 an assault on Java was planned. During the advance through swamps and jungle towards the heavily fortified camp at Cornelius, the Dutch launched an attack but were skilfully outflanked. The Gunners with the expedition force hauled 18 pounder guns and 8" howitzers up to gun positions within 800 yards of the fortress. Here they were subjected to constant bombardment from 24 and 36 pounders of greater power and range whilst they built their defences.